As we close out the year and prepare for tax season, here's what individuals and families need to know about tax provisions for 2022.
Personal exemptions are eliminated for tax years 2018 through 2025.
The standard deduction for married couples filing a joint return in 2022 is $25,900. For singles and married individuals filing separately, it is $12,950, and for heads of household, the deduction is $19,400.
The additional standard deduction for blind people and senior citizens in 2022 is $1,400 for married individuals and $1,750 for singles and heads of households.
Income Tax Rates
In 2022 the top tax rate of 37 percent affects individuals whose income exceeds $539,900 ($647,850 for married taxpayers filing a joint return). Marginal tax rates for 2022 are as follows: 10%, 12%, 22%, 24%, 32%, 35%, and 37%. As a reminder, while the tax rate structure remained similar to prior years under tax reform (i.e., with seven tax brackets), the tax-bracket thresholds increased significantly for each filing status.
Estate and Gift Taxes
In 2022 there is an exemption of $12.06 million per individual for estate, gift, and generation-skipping taxes, with a top tax rate of 40 percent. The annual exclusion for gifts is $16,000.
Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT)
For 2022, exemption amounts increased to $75,900 for single and head of household filers, $118,100 for married people filing jointly and for qualifying widows or widowers, and $59,050 for married taxpayers filing separately.
Pease and PEP (Personal Exemption Phaseout)
Both Pease (limitations on itemized deductions) and PEP (personal exemption phase-out) have been eliminated under TCJA.
Flexible Spending Account (FSA)
A Flexible Spending Account (FSA) is limited to $2,850 per year in 2022 and applies only to salary reduction contributions under a health FSA. The term "taxable year" as it applies to FSAs refers to the plan year of the cafeteria plan, which is typically the period during which salary reduction elections are made.
Long-Term Capital Gains
In 2022 tax rates on capital gains and dividends remain the same as 2021 rates (0%, 15%, and a top rate of 20%); however, taxpayers should be reminded that threshold amounts don't correspond to the tax bracket rate structure as they have in the past. For example, taxpayers whose income is below $41,675 for single filers and $83,350 for married filing jointly pay 0% capital gains tax. For individuals whose income is at or above $459,750 ($517,200 married filing jointly), the rate for both capital gains and dividends is capped at 20 percent.
Miscellaneous deductions that exceed 2 percent of AGI (adjusted gross income) are eliminated for tax years 2018 through 2025. As such, you can no longer deduct on Schedule A expenses related to tax preparation, moving (except for members of the Armed Forces on active duty who move because of a military order), job hunting, or unreimbursed employee expenses such as tools, supplies, required uniforms, travel, and mileage.
Business owners are not affected and can still deduct business-related expenses on Schedule C.
Individuals - Tax Credits
In 2022 a nonrefundable (i.e., only those with tax liability will benefit) credit of up to $14,890 is available for qualified adoption expenses for each eligible child.
Child and Dependent Care Credit
If you pay someone to take care of your dependent (defined as being under the age of 13 at the end of the tax year or incapable of self-care) to work or look for work, you may qualify for a credit of up to $1,050 or 35 percent of $3,000 of eligible expenses in 2022. For two or more qualifying dependents, you can claim up to 35 percent of $6,000 (or $2,100) of eligible expenses. For higher-income earners, the credit percentage is reduced, but not below 20 percent, regardless of the amount of adjusted gross income. This tax credit is nonrefundable.
Child Tax Credit and Credit for Other Dependents
For 2022, the child tax credit reverts to $2,000 per child, under the age of 17. The refundable portion of the credit is $1,400 in 2022, so that even if taxpayers do not owe any tax, they can still claim the credit. A $500 nonrefundable credit is also available for dependents who do not qualify for the Child Tax Credit (e.g., dependents age 17 and older).
Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC)
For the tax year 2022, the maximum earned income tax credit (EITC) for low, and moderate-income workers and working families increased to $6,935 (up from $6,728 in 2021). For taxpayers with no qualifying children, the maximum credit is $560.
The maximum income limit (three or more qualifying children) for the EITC increased to $59,187 (up from $57,414 in 2021) for married filing jointly and $53,057 for taxpayers whose filing status is single or head of household. The credit varies by family size, filing status, and other factors, with the maximum credit going to joint filers with three or more qualifying children.
Individuals - Education Expenses
Coverdell Education Savings Account
You can contribute up to $2,000 a year to Coverdell savings accounts in 2022. These accounts can be used to offset the cost of elementary and secondary education, as well as post-secondary education.
American Opportunity Tax Credit and Lifetime Learning Credit
The maximum credit is $2,500 per student for the American Opportunity Tax Credit. The Lifetime Learning Credit remains at $2,000 per return. To claim the full credit for either, your modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) must be $80,000 or less ($160,000 or less for married filing jointly).
Employer-Provided Educational Assistance
As an employee in 2022, you can exclude up to $5,250 of qualifying postsecondary and graduate education expenses that are reimbursed by your employer.
Student Loan Interest
In 2022, you can deduct up to $2,500 in student-loan interest as long as your modified adjusted gross income is less than $70,000 (single) or $140,000 (married filing jointly). The credit cannot be claimed if your modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) is more than $85,000 for single filers ($170,000 if married filing jointly).
Individuals - Retirement
For 2022, the elective deferral (contribution) limit for employees who participate in 401(k), 403(b), most 457 plans, and the federal government's Thrift Savings Plan is $20,500. For persons age 50 or older in 2022, the limit is $27,000 ($6,500 catch-up contribution).
Retirement Savings Contributions Credit (Saver's Credit)
In 2022, the adjusted gross income limit for the saver's credit for low and moderate-income workers is $68,000 for married couples filing jointly, $51,000 for heads of household, and $34,000 for married individuals filing separately and for singles. The maximum credit amount is $2,000 ($4,000 if married and filing jointly). Just to remind you, starting in 2018, the Saver's Credit can be taken for your contributions to an ABLE (Achieving a Better Life Experience) account if you're the designated beneficiary. However, remember that your eligible contributions may be reduced by any recent distributions you received from your ABLE account.
Don't hesitate to call if you have any questions about these and other tax provisions that could affect your tax situation.